John knox and his new belief:
Sir John knox confessed the protestant belief in the year 1545.
He preached the Reformed doctrines in many places and Wishart had come to East Lothian in Dec., 1545, and there he made Knox’s acquaintance.
John knox became a bodyguard for the fiery Protestant preacher George Wishart, who was speaking throughout Scotland.
John knox will stand before george wishart with his double-edged sword to protect him.
Mr.George who was banished from his native returned in 1544 after 2 years cardinal Beaton ordered him to burn at the stake.
John knox wrote “History of the reformation of Scotland” in which he has explained about his call to do the ministry of God;and the first sermon at st.Andrew’s church where he was a priest.
Knox was arrested:
In the year 1547 french allies attacked Scottish castle to stop the spreading protestant beliefs. They captured John knox and for 19 months he was a slave in france suffering many problems there.
After his release, Knox returned to Scotland and began his attacks upon the Catholic Mass, writing his tract A Vindication That the Mass Is Idolatry.
Jezebel spirit against Elijah (Mary of Scots and sir John Knox):
His work in Scotland was put on hold, however, when the Catholic Mary Tudor ascended to the English throne.Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Her executions of Protestants led to the posthumous sobriquet “Bloody Mary”.
John knox went to Geneva and was guided by John Calvin more in reformed theology;then he left Geneva and pastored an english refugee church in germany.
In 1555 Knox returned to Scotland but due to persecution he left within a year to Geneva.
In August of 1555, Knox set out for Scotland, where he remained for nine months preaching Evangelical doctrine in various parts of the country, many who were not attending mass was attracted by knox and they joined with him also they had Lord’s supper according to reformed theory.
In May, 1556, he was cited to appear before the hierarchy in Edinburgh, and he boldly responded to the summons; but the bishops found it expedient not to proceed with the trial.
In July Knox returned to Geneva to take care of his congregation and to avoid further persecution of people in Scotland.
Knox’s personal life:
Marjorie Bowes, daughter of Richard Bowes, captain of Norham Castle, Knox and his wife along with her mother accompanied him to Geneva, where they arrived in September.
At the very beginning of his labors as minister of Edinburgh, John Knox had the misfortune to lose his much-loved and helpful young wife. She left two sons,Nathanael,Eleazar, who later became vicar of Clacton Magna in the archdeaconry of Colchester
In 1564 Knox made a second marriage, which was greatly talked of at the time because the bride was remotely connected with the royal family also, John Knox was 50, while she was a maiden of seventeen!
The young lady was Margaret Stewart, daughter of Andrew, Lord Stewart of Ochiltree. She bore Knox three daughters, of whom the youngest, Elizabeth, became the wife of the famous John Welsh, minister of Ayr.
People in those times believed that they must always be submissive to authorities priests and church was also not left alone.But it was knox who stood against this principle with many of the great revivalists at his time.
Knox view of Roman catholic church:
- The view of idolatry led Knox to disagree with the prevailing view of subjugation to the throne.
- Focusing upon the Old Testament, Knox came to a different conclusion.He considered prophets and priests
- In his mind the Catholic Mass was idolatry, and, therefore, the Catholic was an idolater.
- Any Catholic monarch—such as Queen Mary I—was, therefore, an idolatrous and wicked ruler.
- Christians should not submit to such rulers but oppose them.
- Returning to Scotland in 1559, Knox led the Reforming party of Scotland. He continued to promote reformation and raised troops to assist in that goal.
- Over the last thirteen years of his life, Knox passionately fought for reform in Scotland and opposed the Catholic Church and Catholic rulers.
Interview between Queen of Scotland and Sir.John knox:
In the year 1561 queen mary of Scots called John knox and had an interview with him.
On 19 August 1561, cannons were fired in Leith to announce Queen Mary’s arrival in Scotland.
When she attended Mass being celebrated in the royal chapel at Holyrood Palace five days later, this prompted a protest in which one of her servants was jostled. The next day she issued a proclamation that there would be no alteration in the current state of religion and that her servants should not be molested or troubled. Many nobles accepted this, but not Knox.
The following Sunday, he protested from the pulpit of St Giles’. As a result, just two weeks after her return, Mary summoned Knox.
She accused him of inciting a rebellion against her mother and of writing a book against her own authority. Knox answered that as long as her subjects found her rule convenient, he was willing to accept her governance, noting that Paul the Apostle had been willing to live under Nero‘s rule. Mary noted, however, that he had written against the principle of female rule itself. He responded that she should not to be troubled by what had never harmed her. When Mary asked him whether subjects had a right to resist their ruler, he replied that if monarchs exceeded their lawful limits, they might be resisted, even by force.
On 13 December 1562, Mary sent for Knox again after he gave a sermon denouncing certain celebrations which Knox had interpreted as rejoicing at the expense of the Reformation. She charged that Knox spoke irreverently of the Queen in order to make her appear contemptible to her subjects. After Knox gave an explanation of the sermon, Mary stated that she did not blame Knox for the differences of opinion and asked that in the future he come to her directly if he heard anything about her that he disliked. Despite her friendly gesture, Knox replied that he would continue to voice his convictions in his sermons and would not wait upon her.
During Easter in 1563, some priests in Ayrshire celebrated Mass, thus defying the law. Some Protestants tried to enforce the law themselves by apprehending these priests. This prompted Mary to summon Knox for the third time. She asked Knox to use his influence to promote religious toleration. He defended their actions and noted she was bound to uphold the laws and if she did not, others would. Mary surprised Knox by agreeing that the priests would be brought to justice
The most dramatic interview between Mary and Knox took place on 24 June 1563.Mary summoned Knox to Holyrood after hearing that he had been preaching against her proposed marriage to Don Carlos, the son of Philip II of Spain. Mary began by scolding Knox, then she burst into tears. “What have ye to do with my marriage?” she asked, and “What are ye within this commonwealth?” “A subject born within the same, Madam,” Knox replied.He noted that though he was not of noble birth, he had the same duty as any subject to warn of dangers to the realm. When Mary started to cry again, he said, “Madam, in God’s presence I speak: I never delighted in the weeping of any of God’s creatures; yea I can scarcely well abide the tears of my own boys whom my own hand corrects, much less can I rejoice in your Majesty’s weeping.”He added that he would rather endure her tears, however, than remain silent and “betray my Commonwealth”. At this, Mary ordered him out of the room.
Knox’s final encounter with Mary was prompted by an incident at Holyrood. While Mary was absent from Edinburgh on her summer progress in 1563, a crowd forced its way into her private chapel as Mass was being celebrated. During the altercation, the priest’s life was threatened. As a result, two of the ringleaders, burgesses of Edinburgh, were scheduled for trial on 24 October 1563. In order to defend these men, Knox sent out letters calling the nobles to convene. Mary obtained one of these letters and asked her advisors if this was not a treasonable act. Stewart and Maitland, wanting to keep good relations with both the Kirk and the Queen, asked Knox to admit he was wrong and to settle the matter quietly. Knox refused and he defended himself in front of Mary and the Privy Council. He argued that he had called a legal, not an illegal, assembly as part of his duties as a minister of the Kirk. After he left, the councillors voted not to charge him with treason.
It is also said that Queen Mary of Scots once said“I fear the prayers of John Knox more than all the assembled armies of england“
His Final prayer:
when Knox was near death, he asked his wife to read to him the High Priestly Prayer in John 17 that our Lord Jesus prayed the night before He went to the cross.
Knox called this passage “my first anchor.”
Despite Knox’s hard work, his goal was not realized until after his death in 1572.
Knox is remembered as a firebrand Reformer who was either loved or hated.